Slum home design in Spain
The RAE defines slum as a “room, dwelling or small and petty business”. In Spain, they proliferated in early century, when “the bourgeoisie finds he can abandon their large central metropolitan housing divide them into several fractions and stay in them many families” as people collect crickets in matchboxes. [Album]
For Carlos Sambricio, curator of the exhibition ‘The Social Housing: History of a need’, organized by the Ministry of Housing and collective public promoters AVS, this reality, of these “slums” of the late nineteenth century, partly concern of policy institutions more or less effective depending on the time active housing.
The show, which is set forth in Archery Nuevos Ministerios in Madrid until February 28, runs one hundred years of evolution of the housing. If until 1925 the social policy focused on cheap, unhealthy and build single-family away from urban centers At the end of the 20s and during the Republic, homes passed divided into -Kitchen rooms, bathroom, bedroom and living-room, to provide hot water and shower, appliances (the first fresh fish or other appliances), folding beds ( nest). He collected Living Room Paint Ideas and chose the best from those.
From that rationalist movement are still numerous examples, such as the neighborhood Solocoeche Bilbao, designed by Amann. The Bloc House, symbol of Catalan GATEPAC or colonies Cruz del Rayo, in Madrid.
1940, against ‘non-Christian’ homes
Rationalism meant for dictatorship “culture of the Republic, the great enemy, but unlike Nazism and fascism, which did provide new ways of thinking about architecture, the initial Franco had no idea what to do, “ says . Modern and European heritage conception of the Republic is repudiated by considered “non-Christian”. Hence initially opt for housing escurialense inspiration, as the colony of houses and military officials Avenida de America, Gamir and Olasagasti.
But the debate is not exhausted, and some sectors Franco, “as the Jesuits,” recalls Sambricio pose new reflections. In 1949, the regime began a process of renewal of Architecture, he came to think of a possible industrialization to lower the price of houses, but unemployment would generate far prevented the Franco took the step, “a decision that there to thank the regime, curiously, “said Sambricio.
The new social housing became blocks of four or five plants, many located in parkland, and intended for workers. Then appears in Madrid, for example, the neighborhood of Half designed by Oiza, Albear, Roma and Queen.
Developmentalism, ‘all owners’
To Sambricio, professor of History of Architecture at ETSAM of Madrid, the first major urban chaos started in 1959 with the development policy, rural exodus and the growth of cities. “Wanted modernity, houses earn surface and emerge ‘housing estates.'”
It is the time when the private sector takes over from the public initiative in the plane of theresidential building and the birth of the need to live the middle class to own.
One of the sections of the exhibition presents the evolution of the four different rooms of a house, playing at 1: 1 classrooms, kitchens, bedrooms and bathrooms, dissected from six different times, thanks to audiovisual and musical techniques, thanks Ariadne Cantis work, emulating a time warp.
In recent decades, planning, new neighborhoods and villages eradication mark the urban pattern.While changing lifestyles and new family forms emerge, houses reduced dimensions, dotacionales services are offered, and stays change of use. “You eat in the kitchen and bathrooms are close to or installed in the bedrooms,” sums Sambricio.
The exhibition also offers visitors a collection of photographs that portray the present of social housing, design and adapted to the times, with images taken one month inhabited houses, showing how it makes citizens shape stays the same differently.
“PROTECTED HOUSING: History of a need”
from January 12 to February 28, 2010 Where: Archery Nuevos Ministerios; Paseo de la Castellana, Madrid 67 Organizers: Ministry of Housing and Association of Public Housing and Land (AVS)